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Cauvery Tribunal’s Final Order Affected State- Tamil Nadu Agitating State – Karnataka Fair Solution Awaits.

Cauvery Tribunal’s Final Order

Affected State- Tamil Nadu

Agitating State – Karnataka

Fair Solution Awaits.


            In Tamilnadu, Cauvery basin occupies 34% of the geographical area of the State. Cauvery provides lively hood security to more than 2 crore people living in the basin. Furthur Cauvery is the drinking water source for more than 4 Crore population. The total population of Tamilnadu is 6.25 Crores as per 2001 census.


            Where as in Karnataka Cauvery basin occupies around 18% of the geographical area of the State and more than 1 Crore people are living in the Cauvery Basin. The total population of the Karnataka State is 5.25 crores as per 2001 Census.


            Karnataka for the past 40 years inducing linguistic Chauvinism and crossed the constitutional limits of the States, to take control of the entire flows of Cauvery & its tributaries in the State and succeeded lot in its ambitions.


            Government of India constituted Inter-State Water disputes Tribunals for the rivers Godavary, Krishna & Narmadha in the year 1969, as soon the problem started between the basin states. All these Tribunals passed their orders during 1975-1980 years, avoiding more bitterness among the concerned states. Where as for Cauvery even though the problems, Started during 1960-1970 period GOI adviced Tamilnadu for mutual dialogue and dragged for 20 years. Finally the Cauvery Tribunal was constituted in June 1990 on the directions of Supreme Court to GOI. Within this two decade Karnataka took exclusive control over the Cauvery water in its territory, by all means. So the Tribunal’s task to deliver  a fair final order became tough.


            After Independence during the re-organisation of Indian States on linguistic barrier in 1956, the catchment areas of River Cauvery & its tributaries, belonged to the then Madras State in the Western Ghats, Malabar region and Coorg  (Part `C’ state) were become parts of newly carved Kerala & Karnataka States respectively. As now Tamilnadu has no catchment areas to substitute. Other than Cauvery there is no major river in the State. Thousands of years old, Cauvery Irrigation & Culture is ruining. Now Tamilnadu is a water starving state.


            Where as for Karnataka another major River Krishna basin constitute 58% of the geographical area of the State. Further in the State all 13 west flowing rivers together yields 2000 T.M.C. water which flows without usage. Karnataka can use this unutilised huge potential to the extent of 200-300 TMC to its extended ayacuts in the Cauvery Basin.   


            The Cauvery Tribunal in its final order clarified that “the agreements of the years 1892 and 1924 which were executed between the then governments of Mysore & Madras cannot to be held invalid, specially after a lapse of about more than 110 and 80 years respectively. Before the execution of the two agreements, there was full consultation between the then governments of Madras and Mysore”


            But the Tribunal while reviewing and reexamining, various provisions of the agreement, it pushed the ancient rights of the Tamilnadu Cauvery Basin  to a dark corner. By this order, the affected State is Tamilnadu. But Karnataka is agitating.


Tamilnadu – The Affected State:

Cauvery Tribunal order reduced the  Flows to Mettur reservoir.


            As the result of 1924 Agreement Mettur reservoir was constructed and opened for Irrigation in 1934. As per Cauvery fact finding committee report 1972. During 1934 – 1970, the 36 years average flows to Mettur was 378 T.M.C. But the Cauvery  Tribunal in its Interim order in 1991 allotted mere 205 T.M.C.. It took Immediate 10 years period (1980-90) average flows to Mettur 229 T.M.C. as base and leaving 2 good and 2 bad years it took only 6 years average flow as 205 T.M.C. Tribunal also ordered that Karnataka should not increase the existing cropped area, 11.20 Lack acres at that time.


            But Karnataka violated the monthly, weekly pattern of the order and released the Surpluses only. Tamilnadu Strongly believed the tribunal consider the long period average flows to Mettur, established ayacuts, cropped area, agro climatic conditions, Soil types, cropping pattern to be adopted in dry land areas and wet land areas, affecting climates of the region and world wide accepted International water laws and rules.


          But the tribunal in its final order allotted meagre flows of 192 T.M.C. at Billigundulu. This includes the water for environmental protection 10 TMC and to Puducherry Irrigation 7 T.M.C. With this poor flows it is not possible to irrigate the ayacuts that were well established even in 1970s and the drinking water needs of 
4 Crore people.


            Atleast a minimum 325 T.M.C. flows to Mettrur in a water year, the long period average 1934-2000 (66 years) is needed for both Irrigation and drinking water.


2.         Irrigation Area – Water usage

            Analysis of Cauvery Basin States   (Before 1924)


Year – 1901

Irrigation Area

Lakh Acres

Water usage

T.M.C.

Madras State

13.45

366.9

Mysore State

1.11

27.2



Cauvery Fact finding Committee Report – 1972

 

1934-1972 State Wise Share in the Total Flows of the Cauvery Basin – Ayacut (Cropped Area)


Tamilnadu & Puducherry

Lakh Acres

Water usage

T.M.C

Karnataka

Kerala

Lakh Acres

Water Usage

T.M.C

Lakh Acres

Water Usage T.M.C.

28.21

566

6.83

177

0.53

5


 

 

Pleadings of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala & Pudhucherry before the Tribunal and its final order.


Tamilnadu

Pleadings

Karnataka

Pleadings

Kerala Pleadings

Puducherry

Pleadings

Irrigation Area 

L. Acres

Water

TMC

Irrigation

Area

L.A.

Water

TMC

Irrigation

Area

L.A.

Water

TMC

Irrigation

Area

L.A.

Water

TMC

29.26

562

27.28

465

=

92.9

0.425

9.29

Allotted


Allotted


Allotted

 

Allotted


24.71

419

18.85

270

1.91

30

0.425

7


            The above analysis, proves that Tamilnadu is the affected State.


3.         Tamilnadu Cauvery Delta – Crucial Irrigation Period


            Tamilnadu Cauvery delta Irrigation primarily depends on sufficient flows from Mettur for both Kuruvai & Samba Paddy crops. From June – September are the crucial months that decides the fate of both Kuruvai & Samba cultivation of the Cauvery Delta. Tribunal curtailed the water flows during June – September to meagre 134 T.M.C. water and it will adversely affect both kuruvai & samba crops.


            Kuruvai Irrigation starts from June 12th short term Paddy crops (110-120)days are highly suited for  kuruvai. For samba crop additional supply must be ensured from middle  of July. Samba cultivation must be completed by the end of September for the crops to with stand the North East monsoon floods in November. Paddy Long term (150-160 days) and mid-term (135-145 days) are well-suited crops to the samba season.


            The Tribunal final order curtailed the well established kuruvai area of Tamilnadu cauvery basin  from 5.5 lakh Acres to 1.85 lakh Acres which will adversely affect the lively hood of the Farmers of the region.


            As Cauvery delta is a flat terrain (9000 sq kms) it is not possible to store the North East monsoon (October – December) flood flows as already  the Delta paddy crops in submerged condition.


            HELSINKI rules clearly indicates that the climate affecting  the basin must be considered. But the Tribunal failed to note the affecting  climatic  condition of the Cauvery Delta Tamilnadu.


Season wise in flow pattern to Mettur is also Reduced by the Tribunal


Year

June-September

T.M.C

Oct-Dec

T.M.C

Jan-may

T.M.C

Total

T.M.C

 

1934-1970

Average flow

253.26

94.50

30.24

378

Tribunal

Interim order 1991 

137.00

58.59

11.91

205

Tribunal

Final order  2007

134.00

45.00

13.00

192*


* Billigundulu


Monthwise Inflow Pattern



Tribunal Interim order at Mettur

 

Tribunal Final order at Billigundulu


June

10.16


   Crucial

   Months

10


  Crucial

  Months

July

42.76

34

August

54.72

50

September

29.36

40

October

30.17


22


November

16.05


15


December

10.37


8


January

2.51


3


February

2.40


2.5


March

2.32


2.5


April

2.01


2.5


May

--


2.5



205

 

192



Crops & Cropping pattern of Tamilnadu & Karnataka Cauvery Basins – Analysis.


            In Taminadu Cauvery delta is a flat terrain, comprised of wet lands, well established canal irrigation system  even from the days of Chola King Karikala.


            The rain fall of the Delta region ranges from 1000 to 1200 M.M. Delta’s wet lands naturally suited for Paddy cultivation and for the past several centuries paddy is grown.  The paddy crop’s water need is around 1200-1350 M.M. and it is quite natural, in  the Delta, the conducive climate and soil type most suited for paddy.


            Where as in Karnataka Cauvery basin except Coorg District  
(2700 – 2800 M.M.) the catchment of Cauvery, In the Districts Mandya, Chamrajnagar & Mysore mostly are dry lands and the rain fall of this districts ranges from 700 M.M. to 780 M.M. Karnataka itself, notified this areas as 
‘Southern Dry Zone’.  The wet lands were along the river side and are meagre.


            National commission on Agriculture 1976, and Irrigation Commission 1972 also notified almost all the taluks of Mysore, Hassan, Mandya, Bangalore and Tumkur districts are drought prone.


            In the Dry lands with 700-800 M.M. rainfall zone this is highly suited for Cumbu, Maize, Sunflower, Seasame and Horticulture crops, using minimum waters.  But Karnataka is converting dry lands into wet lands by using Cauvery water in the low rain fall zones and water intensive crops paddy (1200 – 1350 M.M) and sugar cane (1800 – 2200 M.M.) are in cultivation, beyond the limit.


            Even during summer water is supplied in the canals for sugarcane and the Reservoirs were drained.  It makes drinking water scarcity to Mysore and Bangalore.


 

Activities of Karnataka

Against National Integration

                             

            In Karnataka State the available Annual water flows in the Cauvery and its tributaries is around 425 T.M.C. Karnataka claimed 408 T.M.C for Irrigation according to its Cauvery master plan, and including drinking water, industrial needs the demand made to the tribunal was 465 T.MC.   The upper riparian states annual available flows is 425 T.M.C. and it is demanding 465 T.M.C. It clearly shows that Karnataka’s is not willing to share a single drop of water with the lower riparian state Tamilnadu.  For the past several years Karnataka is releasing the flood flows only, which were not possible to store in the reservoirs and lakes.  If G.O.I allowed this kind of atrocities of Karnataka, we cannot save Nations unity and Integrity.


We Need Firm decisions – from G.O.I.


            In 1956, re-organisation of Indian states were made on linguistic barriers.  In such condition water resources must be considered as ‘National Assets’.  But states having surplus river water are claiming that water in their territory is their  exclusive right.  This is dangerous to Indian unity and Integrity.  So we pray the central government to make constitutional amendments to declare All rivers as National Assets.  All Indian rivers had their ancient rights and usages and these must be protected and surpluses of each and every rivers must be made common Assets of the Nation and must be shared between the states.


Fair Solution to Cauvery Dispute


            The utilisable cauvery water in the Cauvery Basin of Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Kerala & Pondicherry is 670 T.M.C. at 75% dependability and 740 T.M.C. at 50% dependability.  Cauvery fact finding Committee in its report 1972 clearly indicated the usages of water at the time.



States

Water Usage

Irrigation Area

Lakh Acres

1.

Tamilnadu

566 T.M.C.

28.21

2.

Karnataka

177 T.M.C.

6.83

3.

Kerala

5   T.M.C.

0.53



748 T.M.C.

35.57


            Karnataka knowing the factual position that Cauvery is already fully utilised and it is a deficit basin for further expansion of ayacuts, purposely increased the ayacuts to create problems.


            All the Cauvery basin states Irrigation drinking & Industrial needs together were around 1200 T.M.C. Either Tribunal, or supreme court or G.O.I. cannot solve the problem with this available 740 T.M.C. water when the demand is around 1200 T.M.C. As already pointed out that in Karnataka in the west flowing rivers around 2000 T.M.C. water is going unutilised to the Arabian Sea. The water resource experts of our Nation, already submitted feasible reports that from River Netravathi and nearby Catchments diverting the flood flows (June – September period) by pumping 200 – 300 T.M.C to the Hemavathi Dam is the only fair way to solve the Cauvery crisis. The Institute of Parliamentary affairs had also suggested this during 2001 drought period. G.O.I. must take all steps as a emergent measure to implement this plan.

 

Conclusion   


            Now Tamilnadu is a water starving State and it is troubled by Karnataka on Cauvery. Other side Kerala is creating problems in Mullaiperiyar and in Palar river Andhra State is also creating troubles. 


            Tamilnadu lost its catchments during re-organisation of States in 1956. Now these catchments are with Karnataka & Kerala. These two States together are having un-utilised surpluses in the west flowing rivers around 2500 TMC. These surpluses must be shared with the neighbouring states. Otherwise re-organisation of Tamilnadu border based on water resources and claiming the catchments which Tamilnadu lost during 1956 is inevitable. We believe in India’s Unity and Integrity.



2/73 Main Road,

Arupathy & PO

Nagapattinam District

Tamilnadu – Pin 609 309

Mobile : 094430-93447

e-mail-arupathykalyanam@gmail.com

A.P. Kalyanam

(Arupathy  Kalyanam)

General Secretary,

Federation of Farmers Association

Cauvery Delta Districts,

Tamilnadu


by Swathi   on 25 Jan 2014  0 Comments
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